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2019 Garlic School: Fusarium Management, Eriophyid Mite Trial, Bloat Nematode

Christy Hoepting, Extension Vegetable Specialist
Cornell Vegetable Program

April 11, 2019

2019 Garlic School: Fusarium Management, Eriophyid Mite Trial, Bloat Nematode

The 2019 Garlic School featured final results from a 2-year study which focused on understanding and managing Fusarium disease of garlic. CVP Specialists, Christy Hoepting and Robert Hadad participated in this project, along with Dr. Frank Hay, Plant Pathologist at AgriTech, and CCE Extension Vegetable Specialists, Crystal Stewart (ENYCHP) and Sandy Menasha (CCE Suffolk Co.). 

Here is a brief description of each presentation. Full presentations can be downloaded at the bottom of the page.

Cultural Controls for Fusarium Management -- Crystal Stewart shared the results of the cultural practice study, which was repeated in 2017 and 2018, both in Eastern and Western New York. Treatments included porcelain vs. racombole types, raised vs. flat bed, black plastic, silver plastic, straw mulch and bare ground, fall vs. spring planted. Although none of these treatments had a strong effect on Fusarium diseases, white plastic resulted in the greatest proportion of jumbo-sized bulbs, while spring-planted garlic had the lowest yields.

2016-2018 Garlic Fusarium Trial Results (Part II): Nitrogen and Fungicides/Sanitizers -- Christy Hoepting shared the results of the effects of applied nitrogen, and the evaluation of fungicides and sanitizers on Fusarium diseases. These trials were repeated in 2017 and 2018 in Western NY (Batavia in 2017; Albion in 2018) and in Long Island. Nitrogen treatments included 50, 100 and 150 lb/A of applied inorganic nitrogen (single application in the spring). Sanitizer treatments included Oxidate/Terraclean seed dip and in-furrow treatments at planting, as well as a drench of Terraclean and Terragrow (biological package) over the row during the growing season. Fungicides included Maxim, Vibrance as well as the biological, Serifel. None of these treatments stood out as having much activity on Fusarium diseases of garlic. Interestingly, in 8 out of 8 side-by-sode comparisons, there was no difference in yield among 50, 100 and 150 lb/A of applied nitrogen. We also saw a slight increase in yield only when sanitizers were used with clean seed, and not when we used Fusarium-infested seed, or when we planted clean seed in soil that we artificially inoculated with Fusarium.

Diseases of Garlic -- Frank Hay described several diseases of garlic that occur in New York.  As part of the Fusarium project, samples of Fusarium were sent to Frank from across the state. Although he found six different species of Fusarium, the two most common were F. oxysporum and F. proliferatium. The general impression upon the completion of the Garlic Fusarium Project was that Fusarium diseases of garlic appear to not to be a primary pathogen, rather they are following something else, such as injury caused by insects of abiotic factors.  Other garlic diseases that Frank discussed included white rot, Botrytis, Alternaria embellisia, Anthraconose, Rhizopus and rust, as well as the newly discovered in New York, Eriophyid mite.

2018 Eriophyid Mite Control Trial Results -- Christy Hoepting shared results of an Eriophyid mite trial that she conducted using a severely infested seed lot in 2017-2018. Treatments included seed treatment, seed soak and foliar application of the miticide abamectin, seed soak with mineral oil + soap, hot water treatment and foliar application of Zeal. Seemingly clean cloves from the infested lot were included as a treatment along with clean seed from a clean lot. Key findings were emergence and germination of E. mite-infested seed was very poor and none of the treatments appeared to work. However, clean seed from the E. mite-infested had stands and yields that were statistically the same as clean seed.

Leek Moth Identification and Management Guide -- Crystal Stewart reviewed the leek moth handbook. Recent new reports of this pest include in Niagara County in Ontario, Canada. Thus, it is expected that the leek moth will show up soon in Western NY, if it is not here already.

Update on Bloat Nematode and Other Diseases of Garlic -- Robert Hadad reviewed a presentation on garlic bloat nematodes, as this pest continues to be a sporadic problem in garlic. Since growers have been making a concerted effort to not plant infested seed, this pest problem has lessened substantially since it first blew up in 2010.     



Cultural Controls for Fusarium Management (pdf; 5036KB)

2016-2018 Fusarium Trial Results (Part II): Nitrogen and Fungicides/Sanitizers (pdf; 9190KB)

Diseases of Garlic (pdf; 6965KB)

2018 Eriophyid Mite Control Trial Results (pdf; 9327KB)

Leek Moth Identification and Management Guide (pdf; 4472KB)

Update on Bloat Nematode and Other Diseases of Garlic (pdf; 18990KB)

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Lorsban is Banned: What Now?

Cabbage maggot (CM) feeds on brassica seedlings by tunneling into the stem of the plant just below the soil line. Their feeding can result in unsightly and unmarketable produce in the case of root brassicas like turnips, and in stunting, reduced stand, and reduced yield in head and stem brassicas like cabbage and broccoli. Lorsban and other formulations containing the active ingredient chlorpyrifos were the first line of defense for control of cabbage maggot in several brassica crops, because 1) at ~$10 per acre, it was affordable, and 2) it was easy to apply and avoided worker exposure as a directed spray at the base of the plant.

Unfortunately, Lorsban and all of its generic products for food and feed uses were banned in New York as of July 31, 2021, and in the United States as of February 28, 2022. In the absence of Lorsban and other chlorpyrifos-containing insecticides, NY brassica growers have 6 products belonging to 4 chemical classes available to manage cabbage maggot. This article, Lorsban is Banned: How to Control Cabbage Maggot in Brassicas Now?, written by Cornell Vegetable Program Specialist Christy Hoepting and Brian Nault of Cornell AgriTech, provides our "2022 Top Picks" to use instead of Lorsban plus results of Cornell research trial results related to application method, rate, and cabbage maggot control.


Propagating Strawberry Plants Through Runners

The production of strawberry plants is challenging due to the rigorous sanitation needs that must be met, especially in field propagation settings, but also in greenhouse settings. To add to that, growers in New York may find it more difficult to obtain their preferred strawberry varieties in the coming years, as fewer nurseries are propagating strawberries. The solution: strawberry plug plants propagated from runners in a controlled environment such as a greenhouse or high tunnel.

Plug production of rarer varieties that do well in New York State will fetch a higher price than dormant bare-root plants due to the higher cost of production and lower availability in the Northeast, especially if plants are available in August. Propagating Strawberry Plants Through Runners, written by Anya Osatuke of CCE Harvest NY and Brad Bergefurd of The Ohio State University, only discusses production and marketing potential of plug plants because successful field production of bare-root strawberries is very difficult to achieve without the use of highly restricted soil fumigants. 



Cornell Commercial Vegetable Guidelines Available

The 2022 Cornell Integrated Crop and Pest Management Guidelines for Commercial Vegetable Production are now available!

Written by Cornell University specialists, this publication is designed to offer producers, seed and chemical dealers, and crop consultants practical information on growing and managing vegetable crops in New York State. Topics include general culture, nutrient management, transplant production, postharvest handling, organic production, and managing common vegetable crop pest concerns. A preview of the Vegetable Guidelines can be seen online.

Cornell Crop and Pest Management Guidelines are available as a print copy ($43.50), online-only access ($43.50), or a package combining print and online access ($61.00). Shipping charges will be added to your order. Cornell Guidelines can be obtained through many local Cornell Cooperative Extension offices (call to confirm availability), or from The Cornell Store at Cornell University or call (844) 688-7620.


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